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Showing 34 results for Afkhami-Ardekani

Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi, Ahmad Shojaoddiny-Ardekani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are the two common endocrinopathies seen in adult population. Studies to evaluate thyroid disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoim-munity in type 2 diabetic patients with age and sex matched non-diabetic control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center, 2797 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Clinical examination were carried out and samples for thyroid function test were obtained including thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3 Resin Uptake (T3RU), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab). They were compared with 4844 non-diabetic, age and sex matched control subjects. RESULTS: Our findings showed that the levels of thyroid hormone were not significantly different from levels in non-diabetic controls (P < 0.05). Positive TPO antibody was found in 1032 type 2 diabetic patients (36.9%) versus 1802 (37.2%) in control group (P = 0.8). Positive both thyroid antibodies, TPO antibody and TG antibody were found in 314 diabetic patients (11.2%) versus 516 (10.8%) in controls (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the frequency of thyroid autoimmunity is not significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in non-diabetic control group.
Mina Khabaz, Maryam Rashidi, Fatemeh Kaseb, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated oxidative stress and decline in antioxidant defense. Vitamin E supplementation reduces oxidative stress level in diabetic pa-tients. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study 31 type 2 diabetic patients with Fasting blood Sugar (FBS):140-200 mg/dl, Triglyceride (TG): 200-400 mg/dl, Cholesterol (TC): 200-300 mg/dl and mild hypertension were selected. Subjects received vitamin E 800 IU/day for 3 months. At the baseline and end of the study FBS, TC, TG, LDL, HDL, Glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin level were measured. RESULTS: In this study 31 type 2 diabetic patients (19 female, 12 male) with mean age 53.03 ± 8.87 years were studied. Vitamin E supplementation for 3 months had no positive effect on type 2 diabetic patients. As FBS, TG and fasting insulin decreased but this decline was not significant. Also total Cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes were not remarkable. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that 800 IU vitamin E administration for 3 months could not improve blood glucose, lipids , HbA1c, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic BP in type 2 diabetic patients.
Javad Mohiti-Ardekani, Fria Talebi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Leptin is a hormone resulting from the obesity gene which could be important in the pathogenesis of the insulin. Only limited data concerning the interaction of insulin, glucose tolerance and free leptin are available and no data exist on the potential influence of free vs. bound circulating leptin. We, therefore, studied percentage of free to total leptin in diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty non-insulin dependent diabetic obese patients (age: 50±20 years, BMI >30 kg/m²) and 30 non-insulin dependent diabetic non-obese patients (age: 50±20 years, BMI <25 kg/m²) were studied. Free leptin was purified by Gel filtration chroma-tography and the fractions were collected and then their free leptin was measured by a high sensitive ELISA method. Circulation total leptin and insulin was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Circulation total leptin was significantly correlated to insulin (P < 0.005). Percen-tage of free leptin to total in obese subjects was more than non-obese subjects (27% ± %1 vs. %3 ± %4, [P < 0.001]). Percentage of free to total leptin showed a positive correlation with insulin (r = 0.58 [P < 0.001]), insulin resistance (r = 31 [P < 0.015]) and BMI (r = 0.86 [P < 0.001]). CONCLUSION: The majority of leptin which circulates in obese individuals was free form. Presumably it is bioactive protein of hormone and thus obese subjects are resistant to free leptin.
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mahdi Karimi, Seyed Mohammad Mohammadi, Forough Nourani, Sedigheh Soheilykhah,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Enormous advances have been made in medical care but more people are still having tendency to use herbal or alternative remedies. This study is a randomized, controlled trial on type 2 diabetic patients. The subject consisted of 60 patients divided randomly into three groups and supple-mented daily with 100 mg sodium metavanadate and 660 mg zinc sulfate or placebo for six weeks. The following were checked at baseline of the study and after six weeks: Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), 2-h postprandial glucose (2hpp), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipo-proteins, and High-Density Lipoproteins. Also HbA1c, BMI and BP were measured after 12 weeks to evaluate the long-term effects of drugs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Data of continuous variables are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were assessed by the paired T-test. Comparison between three groups was done by Post Hoc Tests. Mean age of patients was 51.39 ± 8.60 years. The results of this study show a significant decrease in TG (P = 0.01) and BMI (P = 0.03). After 12 weeks, there was a signifi-cant decrease in BMI (P =0.01) in Sodium metavanadate group. Due to zinc sulfate administra-tion, significant decrease was seen in TG (P =0.005), TC (P = 0.02), LDL (P = 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.02). After 12 weeks, there was a significant decrease in HbA1c (P = 0.04) with zinc sulfate consumption. Consumption of zinc sulfate in type 2 diabetic patients could be effective in lipid profile. It is recommended to use another vanadium compound to achieve better results.
Abolghasem Rahimdel, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Amin Souzani, Mojgan Modaresi, Mohammad Reza Mashahiri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes melli-tus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on 2350 diabetic patients (1071 male, 1279 female) referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center (Iran) from June 2007 to February 2008. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire including demographic subject, duration, body weight and length, lab test (HbA1c, 2hpp, FBS), Body Mass Index (BMI). Blood Pressure was measured on the right arm after a five-min rest. Neuropathy was confirmed using a Semmes Weinstein 10 g monofilament over 10 areas of the feet, ankle reflexes and vibration over the great toe and ankle. RESULTS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and diabetic sensory neuropathy in Yazd province is 14.5% and 51.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sensory neuropathy in male was 49.9% and 53.2 % in female, that increased by age (P = 0.001), duration of diabetes (P = 0.001), HbA1c (P = 0.001) and poor glycemic control (high FBS and 2hpp). CONCLUSION: Age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c and poor glycemic control were considered to be the risk factors for sensory neuropathy
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohsen Zahmatkash,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder recognized as a major health problem in Iran. Diabetes is a major source of morbidity, mortality and economic cost to society. Diabetic patients are at risk of experiencing macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes complications and their contributing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 the type 2 diabetic patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. All diabetic patients underwent the specific tests for retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) and cardiovascular diseases (CAD). Logistic regression analysis was used to find out strength of association of risk factors with a specific complication. RESULTS: In this study 1000 type 2 diabetic patients (457 male, 543 female) were studied. Nephropathy was diagnosed in 285 (28.5%), retinopathy in 519 (51.9%), CAD in 251 (25.1%), PVD in 143 (14.3%), CVA in 109 (10.9%) and foot ulcer in 84 patients (8.4%). CONCLUSION: In this study the most important contributing factors in diabetic complications were age, duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin and Body Mass Index (BMI). So glycemic and blood pressure control can prevent diabetic complications or at least delay them.
Beman-Ali Jalali-Khanabadi, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani ,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (1-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is a serious complication in diabetic patients. Black tea and also sour tea contained some flavonoids with antioxidant properties and may be helpful in prevention of lipid oxidation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sour tea and black tea on in-vitro copper induced serum lipids oxidizability in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this sequential double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 diabetic patients were divided into case and control group randomly. Patients in case group used sour tea, and control subjects used black tea as the same program for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study for evaluation of serum lipid oxidizability. Lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, in diluted serum, after added Cu2+. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in serum lipid oxidation parameters between the case and control groups. CONCLUSION: Our finding revealed that sour tea or black tea consumption does not affect the quantitative parameters of serum lipid oxidation.
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi, Ahmad Shojaoddiny ,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (1-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate association between thyroid dysfunction, and lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in type 2 diabetic patients who referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. A total of 1200 type 2 diabetic patients who had thyroid dysfunction according to clinical examinations and laboratory results were chosen as case group and 1200 type 2 diabetic patients who were matched with case in age, sex and duration of diabetes and had no thyroid dysfunction confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination, were chosen as control group. In this study the following variables were measured: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles [Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG)]. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between HbA1c (8.9 ±1.99 vs. 7.1±1.02), TG (234.07 ± 88.69 vs. 205.89 ± 58.47), TC (209.56 ± 45.59 vs. 199.48 ± 41.55), LDL (125.05 ± 46.5 vs. 114.5 ± 45.42) and HDL (37.69 ± 16.78 vs. 43.79 ± 20.25) between two groups (P = 0.001). Moreover, a higher proportion of type 2 diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction had elevated levels of TC (52.3% vs. 43.6%) (P = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (71.8% vs. 64.3%) (P = 0.001), HbA1c (83.8% vs. 35.9%) (P = 0.001) and TG (84.3% vs. 81.2%) (P = 0.02) compared with euthyroid group. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that screening of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients is necessary because thyroid dysfunction can produce significant metabolic disturbances.
Farhad Fatehi , Golnaz Malekzadeh , Atefeh Akhavimirab , Maryam Rashidi , Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (1-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus has shown a tremendous health and social burden worldwide. Better glycemic control in patients with diabetes can be achieved by improving their knowledge which consequently will prevent developing microvascular and neurological complications. Some studies demonstrate effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) for patient education. Regarding exponential growth in mobile phone penetration and its text messaging service in Iran, we decided to evaluate effectiveness of sending SMS in improving knowledge of patients with type 2 diabetes in Yazd, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 100 patients with diabetes were randomly allocated into Intervention Group or Control Group. Short messages were sent to the mobile phones of intervention group every other day using an Internet-based messaging system for 45 days. The control group just received the invitation messages for taking part in the study and a free physician visit. Knowledge of patients was assessed using a questionnaire with 20 multiple choice questions. RESULTS: Eighty one patients (43 intervention group, 38 control group) concluded the study. Mean of correct answers in intervention group improved significantly (P < 0.001) from 7.92 to 11.51 after 45 days, while this difference was not significant in control group. Mean of incorrect answers decreased from 8.00 to 7.00 in intervention group, but it increased from 8.90 to 9.45 in control group. The change of mean score, before and after the intervention, was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: SMS is an effective means of conveying information to the patients with diabetes who own a mobile phone. Further studies are suggested to check whether this improvement in knowledge will lead to change in their attitude and/or practice.
Robab Sheikhpour, Bemanali Jalali, Parichehr Yaghmaei, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (4-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to compare the antioxidant effect of two different doses of zinc on lipid oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 type 2 diabetic patients in Yazd Diabetes Research Center in 2008. The subjects were randomly allocated to receive Zinc sulfate (Iran, Alhavi) either 220 mg (containing 50 mg zinc) or 110 mg (containing 25 mg zinc) daily for two months. RESULTS: In the present study it was found that serum levels of zinc at the end of trial differed significantly after 50 mg/day zinc supplementation (P = 0.002), but this difference was not observed with dose of 25 mg/day zinc administration. There were no significant differences in the quantitative parameters of serum lipid oxidation after either of two doses of Zinc Sulfate (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed zinc supplementation with 50 mg daily for two months could increase serum level of zinc significantly, but we did not observed any change in susceptibility of serum lipid oxidation by 25 or 50 mg zinc supplementation in diabetic patients.
Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam , Gholamreza Sharifirad , Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Mashahiri, Behnam Baghianimoghadam , Raziye Zulghadr, Afsaneh Ranaee,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2011)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common medical problems worldwide. Approximately 18% of persons over 65 years old are diabetic. WHO estimates that the prevalence rate of diabetes (4% in 1995) will increase to 5.6% in 2025. Diabetic foot problems are potentially the most preventable long–term complication for diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in understanding and predicating the intention of diabetic patients in prevention of their foot lesions and amputations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross–sectional study was carried out on 100 diabetic patients in Yazd. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire in four sections. All of data were collected by direct interview and in basis of constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM). The data were analyzed by SPSS. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between mean grade scores of HBM and period of disease (P > 0.05). There was significant difference between perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers and level of education of patients (P < 0.000). There was no significant difference between the foot care and period of disease (P > 0.05). The mean grade scores of knowledge, constructs of HBM and practice of participants about foot care was as follows: Mean grade score of knowledge 4.87 out of 12, perceived susceptibility 12.33 out of 20, perceived severity 14.56 out of 20, perceived threat 26.88 out of 40, perceived benefits 13.33 out of 20, perceived barriers 12.08 out of 20 and mean grade score of practice in foot care was 3.81 out of 10. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study showed that higher mean grade scores of knowledge and constructs of HBM resulted in better foot care by the patients. So our results and results of many other studies carried out on HBM, revealed that HBM constructs may change and improve behavior in participants.
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Ahmad Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (5-2012)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Due to the increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in subjects with type 2 diabetes and also this fact that antibodies could potentially identify subjects at risk of thyroid dysfunction, this study was conducted to investigate thyroid autoimmunity in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center, 4000 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and clinical examination was carried out and samples for thyroid function test including thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab) were obtained. RESULTS: Among 4000 type 2 diabetic subjects (1649 male and 2351 female), 1762(44%) were known to have thyroid disease. A total of 1466 (36.7%) had positive TPO antibodies and 1072 (26.8%) had positive Tg-Ab antibodies. The logistic regression of thyroid dysfunction on Tg-Ab as well as TPO-Ab status (positive vs. negative) was significant (P=0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results showed strong association of thyroid dysfunction with autoantibodies, especially in patients with Tg-Ab positive. Therefore, the findings suggest that all subjects with type 2 diabetes, particularly those with positive antibodies, should undergo annual screening to detect asymptomatic thyroid dysfunction
Sedigheh Soheilykhah, Mohammad Reza Dehestani, Seyed Mohammad Mohammadi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Seyed Ahmad Eghbali, Farzaneh Dehghan,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Objective: Adiponectin (an insulin sensitizing protein) and zinc have insulin like effect. This study was conducted to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on serum adiponectin and insulin resistance in first degree relatives of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial performed on 58 first degree relatives of diabetic patients with normal glucose tolerance test and body mass index (BMI) more than 25Kg/m2. The subjects were divided into two groups: a case group which consumed 50mg zinc orally per day for twelve weeks and another group that was not given zinc but regular exercise and weight control were recommended. Adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance were calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and lipid profile was measured in both groups before and after treatment. Results: The mean age and BMI of participants were 37.6±7.4 years and 28.8±3.5 Kg/m2 respectively. The level of adiponectin increased significantly from 1.67 ±1.29 to 3.67± 3.08 mIU/ml in subjects who received 50 mg zinc compared to the control group (p=0.001). HOMA decreased from 1.89±1.07 to 1.54±1.34 in subjects who consumed zinc, but this reduction was not significant (p=0.13). Conclusion: Zinc significantly increases the level of adiponectin in first degree relatives of diabetic patients. The level of insulin and HOMA index after zinc supplementation decreased but this reduction was not significant.
Robab Sheikhpour, Bemanali Jalali, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Objective: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease. One of the most common problems in diabetic patients is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease which induced by hyperlipidemia. Also there has been currently great interest in the potential contribution of oxidative stress in development of diabetes complications. The present study was performed to associate between lipid oxidizability and serum lipid levels in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, 55 diabetic patients in Yazd Diabetes Research Center were chosen. Lipid oxidizability, HbA1c and serum lipid levels were analyzed in patients. Lipids were measured by enzymatic method. HbA1c was estimated by the ion exchange chromatography. The lipid oxidation procedure was performed by addition of CuCl2. The kinetics of conjugated dienes formation was monitored by spectrophotometer and parameters such as ODmax, Lag Time, Vmax and Tmax were analyzed. Result: In present study, there was no association between lipid oxidizability and serum lipids levels. Also there was no association between lipid oxidizability parameters and HbA1c. Conclusion: This study showed that high levels of blood lipids such as cholesterol and triglyceride do not have any effect on maximal amount of lipids peroxide products accumulation and maximal rate of oxidation during the lipid oxidation course.
Alireza Vahidi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad Yahya Vahidi, Maryam Rashidi, Ahmad Shojaoddiny-Ardekani,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (volume 4, number 3 2012)
Abstract

Objective: Stress and cortisol increase blood glucose. Considering the role of central catecholaminergic pathways on hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical axis, and results of some studies that alprazolam (a benzodiazepine) has inhibitory effect on catecholamines, it seems that alprazolam may reduce blood glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alprazolam on serum insulin level in non-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study done on 20 male adult rats weighing 180-200g which were selected randomly and divided into three treatment and one control groups. Animals in test groups were administrated different alprazolam doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and blood insulin and glucose levels were assessed 0, 2, 4 and 6 hours following the treatment. General Linear Model was used to compare the alterations in serum insulin and glucose levels between four groups in different times. For comparison of mean serum glucose levels between two different times paired t-test and for insulin, Wilcoxon test was used. Results: The serum insulin level alternations were significant in 2 mg/kg group (P=0.0001), with a peak at 4 hour. These alternations were not significant in 0.5 and 1 mg/kg groups, as well as controls. Conclusion: Our findings show thatblood insulin increases in response to alprazolam injection and this effect is dose-dependent. Maximum increase is induced by the dose of 2 mg/kg.
Mohammad Javad Shekari-Ardekani, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mehrshad Poorsaid Isfahani, Shahzad Khosravi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (volume 4, number 4, winter 2012)
Abstract

Objective: Nowadays the value of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in the estimation of body adiposity both on a clinical basis in the individual and epidemiologically in large populations is of great interest. The current study determine accuracy of BIA compared with body mass index (BMI) measurement for estimating body composition in a group of normal weight employee women with a sedentary job status. Materials and Methods: Forty normal weight women employed in a private institute in Tehran, Iran, participated in this study. Body composition parameters including percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, and percentage muscular mass were measured by BIA and BMI was calculated. Results: There were strong direct correlations between one-year BMI value changes and changes in two body composition indices of percentage body fat, and percentage visceral fat, as well as an adverse correlation with the changes in percentage muscular mass. Similar association was only observed between change in basal metabolic rate (BMR) value measured via BIA and percentage body fat, neither percentage visceral fat nor percentage muscular mass. The observed correlation between percentage body fat and BMR was considerably weaker than the relationship between this composition index and BMI value. According to the ROC curve analyses, both BMR and BMI parameters had acceptable values for discriminating decreased from increased percentage body fat however, the discriminative power of BMR value (c=0.762) was lower compared with BMI measurement (c=0.887). As we considered BMI as a gold standard value, BIA yielded a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 70.0% for determining changes in percentage body fat. Conclusion: BIA technique is not superior to BMI measure as a predictor of body composition parameters.
Nahid Mazlom, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Atena Dadgari,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (volume 5, number 5, spring 2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: This study was carried out for investigating the religion orientation relationship with coping with diabetes in type 2 diabetic patients in Yazd, Iran. The present study is a kind of scientific-comparative description. The research subjects comprised of all type 2 diabetic patients admitted to the hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: The study sample was consisted of 160 people (103 female and 57 male) who were randomly selected. Allport’s questionnaire and the questionnaire of coping with diabetes were used as the instruments. Results: The results of the study revealed that there is a significant correlation between internal religion orientation and coping with diabetes in women who are suffering from type 2 diabetes (r=0.18, p=0.04). There was also a positive significant correlation between internal religion orientation and relationship with friends in diabetic women (r=0.25, p=0.01). Conclusion: The relationship between external religion orientation and coping with diabetes in women was not significant. There was also no significant relationship between coping with diabetes and any aspects of the orientation (internal and external) in men. Therefore, the scientific role of religious beliefs and its dimensions on coping with diabetes and how much the main psychological variables have effect on diabetes are of high importance.
Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Majid Jafarizadah, Asghar Zare, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Ahmad Shojaoddiny-Ardekani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (volume 5, number 2 2013)
Abstract

Objective: Obesity is a worldwide and major public health problem including Iran and other countries. Available data indicates that the prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among the Iranian population over the past 30 years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in Yazd (central province of Iran) population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study and performed by census method on Yazd population aged 30 years old or above. Height, body weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured. Statistical analyses were performed with Chi-Square test. Results: Totally, 8448 subjects aged>30 years from both sexes were evaluated. Data showed that the rate of BMI above 25kg/m2 for women and men was 43.9% and 32.2% respectively. In both genders, the rate of obesity and overweight raised by increasing of age up to 50 years old. Overall, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women compared with men in all ages. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 9.5% and 29%, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated a high prevalence of obesity and overweight in the central area of Iran, especially in urban people.
Hakimeh Ahadian, Samira Hajimaghsoodi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (volume 5, number 2 2013)
Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of lichenoid reactions to Anti Hyperglycemic Agents. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study, we examined the oral mucosa of 411 patients at the age of 29 to 85 in 3 groups who consumed various antihyperglycemic agents. Results: In overall, 31 patients had lichenoid reactions (12 patients taking glibenclamide, 1 patient taking metformin and 18 patients taking glibenclamide with metformin) and there was a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.013). The most of the lesions were at the age's upper than 60 years. From 31 patients with lichenoid reactions, 14 subjects (45%) were male and 17 subjects (55%) were female. Conclusion: Prevalence of lichenoid reactions in this study was 7.5% approximately. By considering the significant difference among the groups in the incidence of lesions, the significant effect of glibenclamide in inducing lichenoid reactions can be considared.
Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Amir Hossein Jafari-Mehdiabad, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mahboobeh Rezapour, Fahimeh Chavoshzadeh-Tafti,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (volume 5, number 4 2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are some recommendations for prescription of aspirin in these patients. Our purpose was to determine aspirin usage rate in diabetic patients and to compare it in different ages and based upon cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this study we collected data from 1256 self-reported diabetes mellitus patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center during 2010-2011. This data included age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus, drug history, antiplatelet therapy duration, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history of premature CVD and albuminuria. Results: 48.5% of patients were male (609 patients) and 51.5% were female (647 patients). From female patients ≤60 years old, 52.7% used antiplatelet drug however, this percent for patients over 60 years was 58.9% and for male patients ≤50 and >50 was 47.7% and 81%, respectively. From antiplatelet drug users, 43.1% of males aged ≤50 and 29.2% of females aged ≤60 years old had no or one risk factor that is unnecessary to take it. Conclusion: Physician must encourage diabetic patients to use aspirin when the potential benefit of a reduction in cardiovascular disease outweighs the potential harms. So, clinical judgment is required for prescription of aspirin in men aged ≤ 50 years and women aged ≤ 60 years without multiple risk factors.

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