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Showing 85 results for Diabetes Mellitus

Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi, Ahmad Shojaoddiny-Ardekani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are the two common endocrinopathies seen in adult population. Studies to evaluate thyroid disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoim-munity in type 2 diabetic patients with age and sex matched non-diabetic control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center, 2797 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Clinical examination were carried out and samples for thyroid function test were obtained including thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3 Resin Uptake (T3RU), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab). They were compared with 4844 non-diabetic, age and sex matched control subjects. RESULTS: Our findings showed that the levels of thyroid hormone were not significantly different from levels in non-diabetic controls (P < 0.05). Positive TPO antibody was found in 1032 type 2 diabetic patients (36.9%) versus 1802 (37.2%) in control group (P = 0.8). Positive both thyroid antibodies, TPO antibody and TG antibody were found in 314 diabetic patients (11.2%) versus 516 (10.8%) in controls (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the frequency of thyroid autoimmunity is not significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in non-diabetic control group.
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mahdi Karimi, Seyed Mohammad Mohammadi, Forough Nourani, Sedigheh Soheilykhah,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Enormous advances have been made in medical care but more people are still having tendency to use herbal or alternative remedies. This study is a randomized, controlled trial on type 2 diabetic patients. The subject consisted of 60 patients divided randomly into three groups and supple-mented daily with 100 mg sodium metavanadate and 660 mg zinc sulfate or placebo for six weeks. The following were checked at baseline of the study and after six weeks: Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), 2-h postprandial glucose (2hpp), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipo-proteins, and High-Density Lipoproteins. Also HbA1c, BMI and BP were measured after 12 weeks to evaluate the long-term effects of drugs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Data of continuous variables are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were assessed by the paired T-test. Comparison between three groups was done by Post Hoc Tests. Mean age of patients was 51.39 ± 8.60 years. The results of this study show a significant decrease in TG (P = 0.01) and BMI (P = 0.03). After 12 weeks, there was a signifi-cant decrease in BMI (P =0.01) in Sodium metavanadate group. Due to zinc sulfate administra-tion, significant decrease was seen in TG (P =0.005), TC (P = 0.02), LDL (P = 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.02). After 12 weeks, there was a significant decrease in HbA1c (P = 0.04) with zinc sulfate consumption. Consumption of zinc sulfate in type 2 diabetic patients could be effective in lipid profile. It is recommended to use another vanadium compound to achieve better results.
Abolghasem Rahimdel, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Amin Souzani, Mojgan Modaresi, Mohammad Reza Mashahiri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes melli-tus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on 2350 diabetic patients (1071 male, 1279 female) referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center (Iran) from June 2007 to February 2008. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire including demographic subject, duration, body weight and length, lab test (HbA1c, 2hpp, FBS), Body Mass Index (BMI). Blood Pressure was measured on the right arm after a five-min rest. Neuropathy was confirmed using a Semmes Weinstein 10 g monofilament over 10 areas of the feet, ankle reflexes and vibration over the great toe and ankle. RESULTS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and diabetic sensory neuropathy in Yazd province is 14.5% and 51.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sensory neuropathy in male was 49.9% and 53.2 % in female, that increased by age (P = 0.001), duration of diabetes (P = 0.001), HbA1c (P = 0.001) and poor glycemic control (high FBS and 2hpp). CONCLUSION: Age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c and poor glycemic control were considered to be the risk factors for sensory neuropathy
Mitra Zolfaghari, Seideh Azemat Mousavifar, Shadan Pedram ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2009)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of two methods of follow-up: Short Message Service (SMS) versus telephone call on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This semi-experimental study consisted of 77 patients with type 2 diabetes who were randomly assigned into two groups: telephone follow-up (n = 39) and Short Message Service (n = 38). Telephone interventions were applied by researchers for 3 months. SMS group received message daily for 12 weeks. Data were collected using data sheet to record HbA1c and a questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics. Data gathering was performed at two points: at the baseline of the study and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 using descriptive and inferential statistics methods. RESULTS: Demographic variables were confirmed to be homogenous. The results of this study showed that both interventions had significant mean changes in HbA1c for the telephone group (P = 0.001) with a mean change of -0.93% and for the SMS group (P = 0.001) with a mean change of -1.01%. CONCLUSION: The findings of this research showed that intervention using SMS via mobile phone and nurse-led-telephone follow-up improves HbA1c for three months in type 2 diabetic patients and it can be considered as an alternative method for diabetes control.
Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Maryam Rashidi, Ahmad Shojaoddiny ,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (1-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate association between thyroid dysfunction, and lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in type 2 diabetic patients who referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. A total of 1200 type 2 diabetic patients who had thyroid dysfunction according to clinical examinations and laboratory results were chosen as case group and 1200 type 2 diabetic patients who were matched with case in age, sex and duration of diabetes and had no thyroid dysfunction confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination, were chosen as control group. In this study the following variables were measured: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles [Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG)]. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between HbA1c (8.9 ±1.99 vs. 7.1±1.02), TG (234.07 ± 88.69 vs. 205.89 ± 58.47), TC (209.56 ± 45.59 vs. 199.48 ± 41.55), LDL (125.05 ± 46.5 vs. 114.5 ± 45.42) and HDL (37.69 ± 16.78 vs. 43.79 ± 20.25) between two groups (P = 0.001). Moreover, a higher proportion of type 2 diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction had elevated levels of TC (52.3% vs. 43.6%) (P = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (71.8% vs. 64.3%) (P = 0.001), HbA1c (83.8% vs. 35.9%) (P = 0.001) and TG (84.3% vs. 81.2%) (P = 0.02) compared with euthyroid group. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that screening of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients is necessary because thyroid dysfunction can produce significant metabolic disturbances.
Abbass Morshedi, Mohammad Hossein Dashti-Rahmatabadi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (4-2010)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease which affects many organ systems in the body and is associated with a progressive weight loss. Many diabetic patients used to consume herbal remedies to relieve their symptoms. Black tea and its fermented remedy which is made by cultivating the Kombucha mushroom in a mixture of warm tea and sugar are widely used by diabetic patients throughout the world. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of black and Kombucha tea on weight loss was investigated in diabetic Rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes mellitus in rats and blood glucose higher than 300 mg/dl was considered as the criterion for the diabetes induction. Control animals received tap water while the sham and test groups consumed sweet black tea solution and different diluents of Kombucha tea solution (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), respectively for 15 days as their drink. Animals weight was measured before DM induction and on days 1, 3, 7 and 15 after DM induction. Data were analyzed as mean ± SEM on different days and in different groups by using T-test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: All diabetic animals showed a significant weight loss (P < 0.05) which continued progressively in control group, but in animals consuming black or Kombucha tea, there was a progressive weight gain during the experimental procedure, so at the end of the experiment, the animals weight in these groups was the same as their weight before DM induction ( P > 0.05). At the end of this experiment there was no significant difference in the animals weight in black and Kombucha tea groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our findings both black and Kombucha tea induce weigh gain in diabetic rats which may be due to some antidiabetic agents in these remedies.
Amir Ziaee, Majid Sarreshtedari, Nejhla Abrishamchian, Toktam Karimzadeh, Sonia Oveisi, Azam Ghorbani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2011)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of Lipoprotein (a) in diabetic patients comparing to control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the patients referred to Endocrinology Clinic of Bu Ali-Sina Hospital in 2009. 180 subjects including 90 diabetic and 90 healthy subjects as control group enrolled in this study. All diabetic patients had glycemic control. We measured serum FBS, TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum Lp (a) in both groups. Data were analyzed by T-test and chi-square. RESULTS: BMI, sex and age were similar in two groups. Lp (a) level was significantly higher in diabetic ones compared with control group (35.27 ± 28.6 vs. 20.22 ± 10.3 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Serum TG, Cholesterol, LDL were also significantly higher in diabetics (P < 0.001) while HDL was lower. HDL-Cholesterol level was significantly higher in diabetic men than women [OR = 0.18 CI 95% (0.06- 0.56)], and there was positive correlation between FBS level and lipid profile. CONCLUSION: Lp (a) as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis has elevated level in diabetic patients. So lowering its concentration would help prevention of CAD, a known cause of death in diabetic patients.
Mahdieh Mojibian, Sedigheh Soheilykhah, Soodabeh Rahimi-Saghand , Maryam Rashidi , Saeedeh Soheilykhah ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2011)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an acute phase protein produced by hepatocytes, may be associated with diabetes. This study aimed to compare serum levels of CRP in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), impaired glucose tolerance test and control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case control study, 30 women with GDM and 28 women with impaired glucose tolerance, (according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria) were compared with 31 normal pregnant women as control group. Groups were matched for gestational age, age and BMI before pregnancy. At 24-28 weeks of gestation, CRP levels were measured in three groups and compared with each other. RESULTS: Our study showed serum CRP level was not significantly different among three groups. The median of serum CRP level in women with GDM, abnormal glucose tolerance test, and normal women was 8.8(7.5), 6.9(8.25) and 11.40(5.8) mg/dL respectively. In GDM patients, there was a significant correlation between CRP and BMI before pregnancy (r=0.467, p=0.033). CONCLUSION: We didn't find a significant correlation between maternal serum CRP level and gestational diabetes but our study showed a significant correlation between pre-pregnancy BMI and CRP in gestational diabetic women
Hajieh Bibi Shahbazian, Seyed Jalal Hashemi , Seyed Mahmood Latifi , Gholamreza Lashkarara , Gholamreza Alizadeh Attar,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2011)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetic patients and to assess its possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy two (186 females and 86 males) diabetic patients were studied. Liver ultrasound was performed along with the measurement of such labratoary tests as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phospahatase, fasting blood sugar, glycosilated hemoglobin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Patients with other causes of fatty liver disease such as autoimmune hepatitis or Wilson’s disease were excluded. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 51±10 years. One hundred and eighty nine of them (70%) had fatty liver, of whom 60 (32%) and 129 (68%) subjects were males and females, respectively. One hundred and fifteen (61%) out of 189 patients were in grade 1, 66 (35%) were in grade 2, and the rest, 8 (4%), were in grade 3 of fatty change in liver. In logistic regression analysis, the variables with significant changes were Body Mass Index (BMI) with OR = 1.26 (95% CI = 1.16-1.37) and triglyceride (TG ) with OR = 1.46 (95% CI = 1.01-2.11). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of fatty liver disease was high in the studied patients (70%). In diabetic patients, Body Mass Index (BMI) and triglyceride (TG) had significant relationship with the presence of fatty liver.
Nayereh Parsaeyan, Hassan Mozaffari–khosravi , Mohammad Reza Mozayan,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (5-2012)
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of human serum paraoxonase( PON1). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus consumed 200 ml of PJ daily for a period of 6 weeks. Blood was collected from the patients before and after PJ consumption after 12 h of fasting. Blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured by enzymatic kit method and autoanalyzer. The concentration of LDL-C was calculated by using Friedwald formula. The malondialdehyde concentration (μmol/L) was determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 enzyme were measured using paraoxone and phenylacetate as the substrates. RESULTS: The concentration of fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL-C and malondialdehyde significantly (p<0.001) decreased after the intervention. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 significantly (p<0.001) increased after the intervention. However, there were no significant changes in serum triglyceride and HDL-C. There was a significant positive correlation between paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 and serum HDL-C concentration. A significant negative correlation was detected between paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 and FBS. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that PJ consumption as an antioxidant may have a contribution in changing fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, lipoprotein oxidation, and PON1 activity.
Zahra Razavi, Fariba Mohammadi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Objective: Limited joint mobility (LJM) has been described as the earliest clinical complication of diabetes mellitus. This study was performed to determine the frequency of limited joint mobility and to evaluate the association between LMJ and some chronic diabetic complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 11.89 ±3.75 years, with 4.2±2 years mean duration of disease were studied. Diabetic patients were compared with 125 healthy young controls that were group-matched for age and sex. Variables such as age, sex, duration of disease and mean HbA1c level were obtained from the patients′ medical records. LJM was assessed by observing the small joints of the hands in the prayer position. Student t-test and chi-square (X2) were used for comparisons between groups. Results: The frequency of LJM was significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls (19.2% vs. 4%, p=0.001). Diabetic patients with LJM had not longer duration of diabetes than those without LJM (4.33 years compared to 4.08 years, p=0.55). Its presence was significantly related to microalbuminuria (p=0.017) and higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Conclusion: Diabetic patients showed a significantly higher frequency of LJM than non-diabetic patients. LJM in the hands of patients with type 1 DM was associated with microalbuminuria but it was not related to retinopathy.
Hossain Azizian, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Mansour Esmaeilidehaj, Seyyed Majid Bagheri,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2012)
Abstract

Objective: Control of weight gain is an important strategy in reducing the diabetes incidence. Recently, herbal drugs have been used as a complementary and alternative medicinal care. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ferula asafoetida on weight gain, fat accumulation, liver steatosis and leptin level. Materials and Methods: All rats of control and treatment groups received daily tap water (P.O) as vehicle mixed with fructose 10%. Two treatment groups received FAF oleo-gum resin at doses of 25 or 50 mg/kg (P.O). Normal rats received only tap water and standard chow food. Body weights, abdominal fat, size of epididymal adipocyte and serum leptin were recorded. Result: Administration of Ferula asafoetida significantly decreased body weights, abdominal fat and size of epididymal adipocyte compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). Levels of serum leptin were significantly decreased in treated rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that Ferula asafoetida extract has anti-obesity, fat lowering effects and can prevent liver steatosis in type 2 diabetic rats. Reduction of serum leptin is associated with protective effects of Ferula asafoetida in obese diabetic rats.
Seyyed Omid Mahdavi, Sedighe Hashemi, Najmeh Sadat Boostani, Haleh Zokaee,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2012)
Abstract

Objective:Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) analysis is the most importantmethod for detection and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Due to difficulty and problems of this method for determination of glycemia in diabetic patients, recently the use of Fasting Salivary Glucoseas a simple and non-invasive method to evaluate FPGhas came into significant considerationof specialists. The aim of this study was the presentation of a new method to evaluate FPG by salivary glucose measurement Material and Methods:This was a cross-sectional study which was done on 52 diabetic patients (test group) and 47 non diabetic patients (control group). After collection of saliva and blood samples, The FPG level was measured by GOD-PAP method and FSGlevel was measured by Glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The statistical significance was calculated by T-Test and regression test for quantitative variables and Chi-square test for qualitative variables. Results:The average FSG in diabetic and non-diabetic groups were 11.43mg/dl and 5.2mg/dl, respectively. Also the correlation coefficients between FPG and FSG in diabetic and non-diabetic groups were 0.835 and 0.583 respectively (p-value=0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed that there is a significant linear relationship between FPG and FSG. Therefore, FSG amounts can be used as a non-invasive method to detect FPG.
Priti Singh, Salman Khan, Mittal Rabindra Kumar,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (1-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: It has been reported that adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a good marker for insulin function but its clinical significance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not yet characterized. This study aims to assess the association of ADA with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and uric acid (UA) in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 120 subjects divided into 3 groups: Group A: non diabetic controls (n=40), Group B: diabetic subjects with HbA1c<7% (n=40), and Group C: diabetic subjects with HbA1c>7% (n=40). This study was carried out in the Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital, Nepal, between April 2012 and April 2013. Results: In our study, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and ADA levels were found to be increased in T2DM patients as compared to controls. ADA activity is found to be higher in Group s B and C as compared to group A. The correlation between ADA and HbA1C was positive in both Group B (r=0.03) and C (r=0.28). There was negative correlation between UA levels and HbA1c (r=-0.07). Conclusion: There was an increase in serum ADA levels with increase in HbA1c levels, which may play an important role in determining the glycemic status in diabetes. It was found that the UA levels increased with moderately increasing levels of HbA1c (<7%) and then decreased with further increasing levels of HbA1c (>7%). Serum ADA and UA levels reflect closely related components of T2DM.
Javad Kiani, Mahin Tazang, Ali Tajziehchi, Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir, Maryam Vasheghani, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (1-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Beside the known factors such as hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of this complication, other etiologies may play role in the pathogenesis of this complication. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of serum vitamin D and vitamin B12 levels in this process. Material and Methods: We enrolled 76 diabetic patients (38 patients with DPN and 38 patients without DPN) who were matched in the terms of age, gender, BMI and duration of diabetes. Diagnosis of DPN was based on nerve conduction studies on sural, peroneal and tibial nerves. Serum vitamin D and vitamin B12 levels were measured in these two groups. Result: Case and control groups had not significant differences in demographic characteristics. Serum vitamin D level was slightly lower in case group (24.1 ± 19.3 ng/ml vs. 24.9 ± 22.3 ng/ml), but the difference was not significant (P=0.857). Serum vitamin B12 level was higher in patients with DPN without significant difference in the two groups (444.2 ± 273.5 pg/ml vs. 390.4 ± 213.9 pg/ml) (P=0.343). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that serum vitamin D and vitamin B12 levels had not significant difference in patients with and without DPN. Further studies are required to better evaluate the role of these factors in development and progression of DPN.
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Farideh Akhlaghi, Omid Rajabi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (1-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Incidence of gestational diabetes can increase by several factors such as obesity, aging, diet and genetic factors. This study aimed to assess the role of nutrition, biochemical and demographic factors in development of GDM in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus were divided into control and GDM women. At the onset of the study, all subjects were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire. Serum samples were obtained from each woman and the biochemical parameters were measured and then analyzed by GraphPad Prism version 5. Results: Our results showed a significant relationship between age and BMI with GDM. The level of triglyceride (mg/dl), HOMA Index (mmol/L×µU/mL), FBS (mg/dl), and Insulin (µU/mL) were significantly higher in GDM women compared to the control group. Serum HDL concentration was significantly higher in normal pregnant women compared to patients with GDM. Education level was also higher significantly in control group. The amount of fruits and vegetables consumption was lower in GDM compared to control group significantly. Furthermore, the women who had consummated fruit and vegetables in their diet less likely developed GDM. Conclusions: This study suggests a strong association between GDM and the consumption of high-calorie foods. Therefore, the use of low-calorie foods such as fruits and vegetables can help reducing the incidence of diabetes in pregnant women.
Hakimeh Ahadian, Samira Hajimaghsoodi, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of lichenoid reactions to Anti Hyperglycemic Agents. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study, we examined the oral mucosa of 411 patients at the age of 29 to 85 in 3 groups who consumed various antihyperglycemic agents. Results: In overall, 31 patients had lichenoid reactions (12 patients taking glibenclamide, 1 patient taking metformin and 18 patients taking glibenclamide with metformin) and there was a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.013). The most of the lesions were at the age's upper than 60 years. From 31 patients with lichenoid reactions, 14 subjects (45%) were male and 17 subjects (55%) were female. Conclusion: Prevalence of lichenoid reactions in this study was 7.5% approximately. By considering the significant difference among the groups in the incidence of lesions, the significant effect of glibenclamide in inducing lichenoid reactions can be considared.
Priti Singh, Salman Khan, Rashmi, Rabindra Kumar Mittal,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Thyroid dysfunction complicates the metabolic derangement observed in Diabetes Mellitus (DM). It is necessary to recognize and treat it, when present, in order to achieve stability of metabolic control in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DM on thyroid hormone levels and other biochemical variables. Materials and Methods: To determine the incidence of abnormal thyroid hormone levels in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital (Nepal), blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between 1st February, 2012 to 31st January, 2013 for investigation of free triidothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), blood urea, serum creatinine, total protein, albumin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Results: Our findings showed that the level of FT3 and FT4 were significantly lower while the level of TSH was significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. From the 100 diabetic subjects that were studied, 29% showed abnormal thyroid hormone levels (24% hypothyroidism and 5% hyperthyroidism).The incidence of hypothyroidism was more in females (16%) as compared to males (8%) in type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: Failure to recognize the presence of these abnormal thyroid hormone levels in diabetics may be a primary cause of poor management often encountered in some treated diabetics.
Fatemeh Azizi Soleiman, Naseh Pahlavani, Hamid Rasad, Omid Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza Gohari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Globally, 3-5.2 percent of people suffer from diabetes which is one of the most serious metabolic disorders resulting in an increase in inflammatory biomarkers e.g. interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and anthropometric parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study in Tehran through 2009-2010 on 45 men and women aged 35-65 years old with type 2 diabetes. Blood glucose, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and malonedialdehyde were measured. Independent sample T-test and linear regression analysis were used. Results: Fasting blood glucose, malonedialdehyde, total cholesterol and body mass index were higher in women than in men but there was no difference between two sexes in other factors. Malonedialdehyde, neither directly nor after adjustment for sex was not related to fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, and body fat mass). Conclusion: This study showed that oxidative stress had not any relationship with blood glucose, lipid profile, and anthropometric index, but inflammation was related to glycemia, body mass index, and fat mass. Control of inflammation and oxidative stress is necessary for accelerating treatment process and preventing complications due to them.
Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Amir Hossein Jafari-Mehdiabad, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani, Mahboobeh Rezapour, Fahimeh Chavoshzadeh-Tafti,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

Abstract Objective: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are some recommendations for prescription of aspirin in these patients. Our purpose was to determine aspirin usage rate in diabetic patients and to compare it in different ages and based upon cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this study we collected data from 1256 self-reported diabetes mellitus patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center during 2010-2011. This data included age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus, drug history, antiplatelet therapy duration, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history of premature CVD and albuminuria. Results: 48.5% of patients were male (609 patients) and 51.5% were female (647 patients). From female patients ≤60 years old, 52.7% used antiplatelet drug however, this percent for patients over 60 years was 58.9% and for male patients ≤50 and >50 was 47.7% and 81%, respectively. From antiplatelet drug users, 43.1% of males aged ≤50 and 29.2% of females aged ≤60 years old had no or one risk factor that is unnecessary to take it. Conclusion: Physician must encourage diabetic patients to use aspirin when the potential benefit of a reduction in cardiovascular disease outweighs the potential harms. So, clinical judgment is required for prescription of aspirin in men aged ≤ 50 years and women aged ≤ 60 years without multiple risk factors.

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